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Anda dapat memastikan keamanan produk dengan memilih dari penyuplai bersertifikasi, termasuk sertifikasi dengan ISO, dengan OHSAS, dan dengan ISO Kerajinan Resin The African wild dog is the bulkiest and most solidly built of African canids.
By body mass, they are only outsized amongst other extant canids by the grey wolf species complex. Compared to members of the genus Canis , the African wild dog is comparatively lean and tall, with outsized ears and lacking dewclaws.
The middle two toepads are usually fused. Its dentition also differs from that of Canis by the degeneration of the last lower molar , the narrowness of the canines and proportionately large premolars , which are the largest relative to body size of any carnivore other than hyenas.
This feature, termed "trenchant heel", is shared with two other canids: the Asian dhole and the South American bush dog. The fur of the African wild dog differs significantly from that of other canids, consisting entirely of stiff bristle-hairs with no underfur.
Little variation in facial markings occurs, with the muzzle being black, gradually shading into brown on the cheeks and forehead. A black line extends up the forehead, turning blackish-brown on the back of the ears.
A few specimens sport a brown teardrop-shaped mark below the eyes. The back of the head and neck are either brown or yellow.
A white patch occasionally occurs behind the fore legs, with some specimens having completely white fore legs, chests and throats.
The tail is usually white at the tip, black in the middle and brown at the base. Some specimens lack the white tip entirely, or may have black fur below the white tip.
These coat patterns can be asymmetrical, with the left side of the body often having different markings from that of the right.
The African wild dog has very strong social bonds, stronger than those of sympatric lions and spotted hyenas ; thus, solitary living and hunting are extremely rare in the species.
The typical pack size in Kruger National Park and the Maasai Mara is four or five adults, while packs in Moremi and Selous contain eight or nine.
However, larger packs have been observed and temporary aggregations of hundreds of individuals may have gathered in response to the seasonal migration of vast springbok herds in Southern Africa.
Males may be led by the oldest male, but these can be supplanted by younger specimens; thus, some packs may contain elderly former male pack leaders.
The dominant pair typically monopolises breeding. Furthermore, males in any given pack tend to outnumber females Furthermore, while elaborate facial expressions are important for wolves in re-establishing bonds after long periods of separation from their family groups, they are not as necessary to African wild dogs, which remain together for much longer periods.
African wild dog populations in East Africa appear to have no fixed breeding season , whereas those in Southern Africa usually breed during the April—July period.
The African wild dog produces more pups than any other canid, with litters containing around six to 16 pups, with an average of 10, thus indicating that a single female can produce enough young to form a new pack every year.
Because the amount of food necessary to feed more than two litters would be impossible to acquire by the average pack, breeding is strictly limited to the dominant female, which may kill the pups of subordinates.
After giving birth, the mother stays close to the pups in the den, while the rest of the pack hunts. She typically drives away pack members approaching the pups until the latter are old enough to eat solid food at three to four weeks of age.
The pups leave the den around the age of three weeks and are suckled outside. The pups are weaned at the age of five weeks, when they are fed regurgitated meat by the other pack members.
By seven weeks, the pups begin to take on an adult appearance, with noticeable lengthening in the legs, muzzle, and ears.
Once the pups reach the age of eight to 10 weeks, the pack abandons the den and the young follow the adults during hunts. The youngest pack members are permitted to eat first on kills, a privilege which ends once they become yearlings.
Packs of African wild dogs have a high ratio of males to females. This is a consequence of the males mostly staying with the pack whilst female offspring disperse and is supported by a changing sex-ratio in consecutive litters.
Those born to maiden bitches contain a higher proportion of males, second litters are half and half and subsequent litters biased towards females with this trend increasing as females get older.
As a result, the earlier litters provide stable hunters whilst the higher ratio of dispersals amongst the females stops a pack from getting too big.
African wild dog populations in the Okavango Delta have been observed "rallying" before they set out to hunt.
Not every rally results in a departure, but departure becomes more likely when more individual dogs "sneeze". These sneezes are characterized by a short, sharp exhale through the nostrils.
If a dominant dog initiates, around three sneezes guarantee departure. When less dominant dogs sneeze first, if enough others also sneeze about 10 , then the group will go hunting.
Researchers assert that wild dogs in Botswana, "use a specific vocalization the sneeze along with a variable quorum response mechanism in the decision-making process [to go hunting at a particular moment]".
Because the African wild dog largely exists in fragmented, small populations, its existence is endangered. Inbreeding avoidance by mate selection is characteristic of the species and has important potential consequences for population persistence.
Inbreeding is likely avoided because it leads to the expression of recessive deleterious alleles. The African wild dog is a specialised pack hunter of common medium-sized antelopes.
The African wild dogs have a higher success rate when it comes to killing prey even though they are smaller than lions and leopards.
Medium-sized prey is often killed in 2—5 minutes, whereas larger prey such as wildebeest may take half an hour to pull down. Male wild dogs usually perform the task of grabbing dangerous prey, such as warthogs , by the nose.
Small prey is eaten entirely, while large animals are stripped of their meat and organs, with the skin, head, and skeleton left intact.
In the wild, the species' consumption rate is of 1. The African wild dog is mostly found in savanna and arid zones, generally avoiding forested areas.
Forest-dwelling populations of African wild dogs have been identified, including one in the Harenna Forest , a wet montane forest up to m in altitude in the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia.
A species-wide study showed that by preference, where available, five species were the most regularly selected prey, namely the greater kudu , Thomson's gazelle , impala , bushbuck and blue wildebeest.
In the case of larger species such as kudu and wildebeest, calves are largely but not exclusively targeted. African wild dogs rarely scavenge, but have on occasion been observed to appropriate carcasses from spotted hyenas, leopards, cheetahs and lions, as well as animals caught in snares.
Lions dominate African wild dogs and are a major source of mortality for both adults and pups. A population crash in lions in the Ngorongoro Crater during the s resulted in an increase in African wild dog sightings, only for their numbers to decline once the lions recovered.
One pack in the Okavango in March was photographed by safari guides waging "an incredible fight" against a lioness that attacked a subadult dog at an impala kill, which forced the lioness to retreat, although the subadult dog died.
A pack of four wild dogs was observed furiously defending an old adult male dog from a male lion that attacked it at a kill; the dog survived and rejoined the pack.
Spotted hyenas are important kleptoparasites  and follow packs of African wild dogs to appropriate their kills. They typically inspect areas where African wild dogs have rested and eat any food remains they find.
When approaching African wild dogs at a kill, solitary hyenas approach cautiously and attempt to take off with a piece of meat unnoticed, though they may be mobbed in the attempt.
When operating in groups, spotted hyenas are more successful in pirating African wild dog kills, though the latter's greater tendency to assist each other puts them at an advantage against spotted hyenas, which rarely work cooperatively.
Cases of African wild dogs scavenging from spotted hyenas are rare. Although African wild dog packs can easily repel solitary hyenas, on the whole, the relationship between the two species is a one-sided benefit for the hyenas,  with African wild dog densities being negatively correlated with high hyena populations.
African wild dogs once ranged across much of sub-Saharan Africa , being absent only in the driest desert regions and lowland forests.
The species has been largely exterminated in North and West Africa, and has been greatly reduced in number in Central Africa and northeast Africa.
The majority of the species' population now occurs in Southern Africa and southern East Africa; more specifically in countries such as Botswana , Namibia , and Zimbabwe.
However, it is hard to track where they are and how many there are because of the loss of habitat. The species is very rare in North Africa, and whatever populations remain may be of high conservation value, as they are likely to be genetically distinct from other L.
The species is faring poorly in most of West Africa, with the only potentially viable population occurring in Senegal's Niokolo-Koba National Park.
African wild dogs are occasionally sighted in other parts of Senegal, as well as in Guinea and Mali. The species is doing poorly in Central Africa, being extinct in Gabon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of Congo.
The only viable populations occur in the Central African Republic, Chad and especially Cameroon. The African wild dog's range in East Africa is patchy, having been eradicated in Uganda and much of Kenya.
A small population occupies an area encompassing southern Ethiopia, South Sudan, northern Kenya and probably northern Uganda.
The species may still occur in small numbers in southern Somalia and it is almost certainly extinct in Rwanda, Burundi and Eritrea.
Nevertheless, it remains somewhat numerous in southern Tanzania, particularly in the Selous Game Reserve and Mikumi National Park, both of which are occupied by what could be Africa's largest African wild dog population.
The species may still be present in the north, though the last sighting occurred in It was once common in the Buloburde District before the late s.
A probably declining population may occur near the Jubba River. One pack was sighted in in Lag Badana National Park , which may be the best stronghold for the species in Somalia.
Southern Africa contains numerous viable African wild dog populations, one of which encompasses northern Botswana, northeastern Namibia and western Zimbabwe.
In South Africa, around specimens occur in the country's Kruger National Park. Zambia holds two large populations, one in Kafue National Park and another in the Luangwa Valley.
However, the species is rare in Malawi and probably extinct in Mozambique. The African wild dog is primarily threatened by habitat fragmentation , which results in human—wildlife conflict , transmission of infectious diseases and high mortality rates.
At the same time, transhumant pastoralists from the border area with Sudan moved in the area with their livestock. Rangers confiscated large amounts of poison and found multiple lion cadavers in the camps of livestock herders.
They were accompanied by armed merchants who also engage in poaching large herbivores, sale of bushmeat and trading lion skins.
Artistic depictions of African wild dogs are prominent on cosmetic palettes and other objects from Egypt 's predynastic period , likely symbolising order over chaos, as well as the transition between the wild represented by the African golden wolf and the domestic represented by the dog.
Predynastic hunters may have also identified with the African wild dog, as the Hunters Palette shows them wearing the animals' tails on their belts.
By the dynastic period , African wild dog illustrations became much less represented, and the animal's symbolic role was largely taken over by the wolf.
According to Enno Littmann , the people of Ethiopia 's Tigray Region believed that injuring a wild dog with a spear would result in the animal dipping its tail in its wounds and flicking the blood at its assailant, causing instant death.
For this reason, Tigrean shepherds would repel wild dog attacks with pebbles rather than with edged weapons.
The African wild dog also plays a prominent role in the mythology of Southern Africa's San people. In one story, the wild dog is indirectly linked to the origin of death , as the hare is cursed by the moon to be forever hunted by African wild dogs after the hare rebuffs the moon's promise to allow all living things to be reborn after death.
The San of Botswana see the African wild dog as the ultimate hunter and traditionally believe that shamans and medicine men can transform themselves into wild dogs.
Some San hunters will smear African wild dog bodily fluids on their feet before a hunt, believing that doing so will give them the animal's boldness and agility.
Nevertheless, the species does not figure prominently in San rock art , with the only notable example being a frieze in Mount Erongo showing a pack hunting two antelopes.
The Ndebele have a story explaining why the African wild dog hunts in packs: in the beginning, when the first wild dog's wife was sick, the other animals were concerned.
An impala went to Hare , who was a medicine man. Hare gave Impala a calabash of medicine, warning him not to turn back on the way to Wild Dog's den.
Impala was startled by the scent of a leopard and turned back, spilling the medicine. A zebra then went to Hare, who gave him the same medicine along with the same advice.
On the way, Zebra turned back when he saw a black mamba , thus breaking the gourd. A moment later, a terrible howling is heard: Wild Dog's wife had died.
Wild Dog went outside and saw Zebra standing over the broken gourd of medicine, so Wild Dog and his family chased Zebra and tore him to shreds.
To this day, African wild dogs hunt zebras and impalas as revenge for their failure to deliver the medicine which could have saved Wild Dog's wife.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. African wild dog Temporal range: Middle Pleistocene — present ,—0 years BP .
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